The trade was conducted through slave markets in these areas, with the slaves captured mostly from Africa's interior.
The trade of slaves across the Sahara and across the Indian Ocean also has a long history, beginning with the control of sea routes by Muslim Arab and Swahili traders on the Swahili Coast during the ninth century (see Sultanate of Zanzibar).
Each year, AI enthusiasts compete for the Loebner prize, which pits chatbot against chatbot to see who or what can come closest to passing that test.
While more sophisticated methods of machine learning are in development, many of today's chatbots are still built on a similar coded call-and-response formula as ELIZA.
ELIZA was developed at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in the mid-'60s by Joseph Weizenbaum.
It simulated the experience of speaking to a therapist by responding to specific words and phrases, and represented a significant step forward in the evolution of human-like AI.
But while some of ELIZA's "patients" took it for human, there were limits to the power of its engagement.
A few weeks ago I was introduced to the world of BDSM scripts: simple sims that replicate the experience of being with a dominatrix.
It occurred to me that these scripts had a connection to ELIZA, one of the earliest examples of a natural language processing program.He revealed that his company's service, called Robin, is being used for up to 300 conversations a day by some men, "mostly teenagers and truckers without girlfriends", who don't have partners of their own."This happens because people are lonely and bored....